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046 Topics: Business cards in the US, nationalities in English, dry-eyed, killer app

时间:2018-05-01   访问量:1706   View PDF
Complete Transcript
You're listening to English as a Second Language Podcast English Café number 46.

This is the English Café episode number 46. I'm your host, Dr. Jeff McQuillan, coming to you from the Center for Educational Development in beautiful Los Angeles, California.

On today's Café we're going to talk about business cards, what you put on a business card in the United States. We're also going to talk about nationalities, where people are from and the words we use to describe people from different countries. And as always, we'll answer a few questions. Now, let's get started.

Our first topic today is business cards. These are the cards that people who work for different companies or different organizations give each other, and it has their personal information on it. I thought I would talk a little bit about what goes on an American business card, what we call certain parts of the card.

The most important information is, of course, your name, who you are. Usually, on a business card below your name, underneath your name, there is your title. Your "title" is your position, what you do, what is your job in the company. If you have a professional degree - if you are, for example, a doctor - a medical doctor or a doctor of philosophy, a Ph.D., then you will put those letters after your name. So, if you are a medical doctor you would say, for example, "Sally Johnson, M.D.," with the M.D. standing for medical doctor. But for most people, you would just have your name and your title underneath.

Of course, other information you would put on a business card would be your telephone number. Usually, people put a telephone number and a fax number. Now it is very common to see a telephone number, a fax number, and a cell number, or cell phone number. The term “cell phone,” you may know, is the same as “mobile phone.” Sometimes on business cards they will abbreviate the telephone number title. So, for example, instead of writing out “fax," it made just say "F" and then the number. So, F 310-555-1212 would be an example of that use of an abbreviation. "C" is cell or cellular phone and "T" would be the telephone that you would talk on.

Another thing that you'll find on an American business card is the logo, the logo of the company or organization that you work for. A "logo" is the little sign or symbol that identifies that company. For ESL Podcast, for example, we have a logo. It says "ESL Pod," it's green, and on a business card, I would put that on my card if I had a business card for ESL Podcast, which I don't.

That leads us to the question of who gets a business card in an American company. Well, definitely the people who are at the top of the company, the executives would get a business card. People who are in sales, who sell things, would get a business card. The original purpose of a business card is to give your information to someone else so they can contact you or call you later, and sales people, of course, need to have that so that people can call them to buy products and services from the company. Other people will also get business cards in organizations. Mostly people who work in offices will get a business card. People who work in more physical jobs, such as manufacturing, making things, the people who are actually in the factory where they make products or they make things that company sells, they may not have business cards. Not everyone who works for an American company gets a business card. It depends on the company. Two other things that go on a business card now would be you or e-mail address and, for most companies, the website of that company.

The size of a business card is usually three and a half inches wide and two inches in terms of the height, or two inches tall. So, three and a half by two inches, that would be about 89 by 51 millimeters, so 89 millimeters across and 51 millimeters from the top to the bottom.

You can give someone a business card at the beginning of the meeting or wait until the end of the meeting. Either way is possible. We often use business cards - some people use business cards - to advertise their product or their service. This is especially common in cafés. Some cafés have a little board where you can put your business card, with a little "pin," the thing that you put into a soft board so it holds the card up. And, you'll often see people such as personal trainers, here in Los Angeles are very common. They will put their card on a local board. A “personal trainer” is the person who helps you at the gym, who helps you, tells you what to do when you are exercising. And in Los Angeles, this is a very common thing that people do. They hire a personal trainer. Other people will also put their cards on these boards to advertise their service.

One thing that you will see in many American restaurants is when you walk into the restaurant, usually at the “host stand,” that is the place where the person who says hello and takes you to your table, that person is called a “host” if it's a man, or a “hostess” if it's a woman - and on the host stand, the place or desk where they are, there's often a bowl. And, it's many times what we would call a “fish bowl,” and it's a small glass bowl that you would normally put little fish in, in water. But, in a restaurant this is usually a place where you can put your business card and every week or every month, the restaurant will have a "drawing," and that means that they pick one of the cards in the bowl and call that person and give them, usually, a free dinner or a free lunch. So, even if you aren't doing business, it's always good to have some business cards with you so you can win a free lunch. That's how I use most of my business cards, since no one really wants my business card to do business!

A second topic we're going to talk about today is nationalities, and nationalities is the word we used to describe where you are from, what country you are from. The word “nation" is the same as country, and “nationalities,” that word, comes from nation. There are a couple things about nationalities in English that are, I think, very confusing and difficult for many people. There is not one rule about how you call someone, how you form the word, or make the word for the nationality. Unfortunately, every country is a little different. It's also important to know the difference between a noun and an adjective when we talk about nationalities.

The noun would be the person from that country and the adjective would be how you would describe someone from that country. So for example, "I'm from the United States," the noun would be American, "I am an American," or "There are three Americans in the restaurant." You can also use the word American as an adjective, "He is an American painter.” “He is an American writer." So, it can be used as an adjective or as a noun. In many countries…for many countries, I should say, in English these are the same words. So, American can be a noun and American can be an adjective.

Another thing to think about when we talk about nationalities is whether it is one person, whether it is singular or plural, if it's a noun. So, for example, "there is one American, there are two Americans," putting an "s" sound at the end.

Well, unfortunately, different countries, as I said before, have different rules - we have different rules, or different ways, that we talk about nationalities. I'm going to talk about some of the most common ways that we form the word for the nationality. Probably the most common way is adding an "an" or an "ian" at the end of a word. So, someone from Canada is called a “Canadian,” we add an "ian." That's both the noun and the adjective. The plural would be Canadians, adding an "s." That pattern, or that format is probably the most common in English, adding an "an" or "ian" and an "s" for plural. Words like this, such as American or Canadian or Columbian, someone from Columbia, usually are the same for the adjective and the noun, that is, it's the same word. So, someone from Peru, for example the country of "Peru," would be called a Peruvian. There it's a little different, there's a "v" that we add, and two people from Peru would be called Peruvians, with an "s."

Now, that's the most common pattern, but it's…there are many other patterns that we also use. For example, someone from Japan is not called a Japanian; we call them Japanese, with an "ese" at the end. And, this is common for several different countries where we add "ese." Now, why "ese?" Well, there isn't necessarily a good reason. Unfortunately, it's just the way that these words have been formed in the past, probably for different reasons. China, for example, the word that we use for China is Chinese. The same would be true for Vietnam. Someone from Vietnam would be Vietnamese. There are also a few other countries, such as the Congo, in Africa, and the Sudan in Africa. Someone from the Congo would be Congolese. Someone from Sudan would be Sudanese. I believe from Nepal, also the country of "Nepal," we also use the "ese."

Now, with the "ese" the adjective and the noun are the same. However, you do not add an "s" at the end. So, you have one Japanese, two Japanese. You don't say Japaneses; you don't put an "s" at the end, that's true for all of the nationalities that end in "ese," Japan, China, Congo, Sudan, and so forth.

Another very common ending for nationalities is "ish." This is an ending that we use for some countries that have the word “land” in them, such as England or Scotland or Finland or Poland. Where you have that "and" at the end, we sometimes use the "ish" for the nationality. So, someone from England is English, someone from Poland is “Polish,” someone from Scotland is "Scottish," someone from Finland it is "Finnish." We also use "ish" for Denmark; someone from Denmark is "Danish." So, those are…that's another way of forming the word.

Now, for these examples, or the "ish" examples, the person, the noun is not always same as the adjective. So, for example, the adjective for someone from England is English, but a person from England, the noun, would be an Englishman or an Englishwoman. From Poland, it's a little different. Someone from Poland, as an adjective we would use Polish, but for the person we would use "Pole," and the plural would be "Poles." So, it's a little different with these endings.

There are many other endings also, for example, some countries we use a "ch" ending. Someone from France is French, for the adjective; for the noun it would be a Frenchman or a Frenchwomen. Someone from the Netherlands would be called "Dutch," and there are other different countries. Unfortunately, there are more than 190 countries, so I can't give you all of the countries. There are some countries where there is no real good way of trying to understand why we call them that particular name. Someone from Spain, for example, as an adjective we would say Spanish, but if it's a person, as a noun, we would say "Spaniard," and the plural would be Spaniards, with an "s."

A few other countries that are very different from these rules would be those from Switzerland, we would say they were "Swiss," that's both the singular and the plural of the noun, and it's also the adjective. Someone from Sweden would be called Swedish with an "ish" as an adjective, but the person is called a "Swede," with an "s" at the end for the plural. And, there are many other examples of this. Someone from Saudi Arabia is normally called a "Saudi." Someone from Thailand would be called a "Thai." Someone from Turkey would be called a "Turk." So, there are many others that we could do, we'd have to spent several hours going through all the countries, but those are some of the most common patterns, the most common ways that we use nationalities in English both as nouns, as adjectives, singular and plural.

Now, let's answer a few questions. Our first question is from "Anna" in Germany. Anna wants to know meaning of the expression, "dry-eyed." “Dry" hyphen "eyed" - what does it mean when we say someone is dry-eyed? Well, "eye," you know is what you look with, what you use to see. When we say someone is dry-eyed this is an expression that means that they are not emotional, that they aren't crying, that they are not affected by something. If you see something that's sad, for example, you might cry, you might have "tears," coming from your eyes. “Tears” is the word we use for the little drops of water that come out of your eye. Well, the opposite of that would be dry-eyed, and it's used to describe someone who is not affected emotionally by something, someone who is not influenced and doesn't have any strong emotional feelings about a certain topic.

"Andrea," from Italy, has a question about the expression "killer app." This is a term that you will see in the computer business, people who are talking about different types of software programs. An "app" is short for “application.” An application is a software program on your computer. Microsoft Word, for example, is an application. Internet Explorer is an application. Well, the short term we used for that is "app." The word “killer,” as an adjective here means great, excellent, wonderful, the best. “It's a killer app” - it's a great application; it's a wonderful program.

Interestingly enough, this word, killer, has another meaning. It can also describe something that is very difficult, something that is very hard to do. For example, "I took a test yesterday with my history professor. It was a killer." Using it as a noun, “it was a killer” means it was very difficult. "It almost killed me," it almost killed me because it was so difficult. So, it can have those two meanings. It can mean great as an adjective, but sometimes, informally, it can also means something that's very difficult. But in the expression killer app, it means it's great or excellent.

If you have a question about something you don't understand in English, email us at eslpod@eslpod.com and we'll try to answer your question here on the Café.

That's all we have time for today. From Los Angeles, California, I'm Jeff McQuillan. Thank you for listening. We'll see you next time on the English Café.

ESL Podcast English Café is written and produced by Dr. Jeff McQuillan. This podcast is copyright 2006, by the Center for Educational Development.

Glossary
title – the name that describes a person’s job or work

* His title sounds very important but I wonder what he really does in that company.

fax – a document sent electronically through a fax machine

* I need to get that contract today. Can you send it by fax?

logo – a symbol or picture that an organization uses to represent the organization or its products

* To promote the company, let’s put our logo on some t-shirts and hats.

pin – also called a “push pin”; a small piece of metal that is flat on one end, used to attach something to a surface, such as paper to a board

* Do you have enough pins to put up that big sign on the wall?

drawing – the selection of a winner in a game of chance, such as a lottery or a raffle

* This year, they plan to give away a trip to Hawaii at the drawing.

nation – a large group of people who have the same history, culture, language, or background

* The president said that, as a nation, we need to start caring about the environment.

dry-eyed – not emotional; not crying

* I don’t know how she can stay dry-eyed while watching that sad movie.

tears – small drops of liquid that comes out of your eyes when you cry

* I don’t want to see any tears. I’m going away, but I’ll be back.

killer app – a very good computer software program

* I just heard about this new killer app and I can’t wait to download it.

What Insiders Know
Nationalities in English

Afghanistan

noun: Afghan(s)

adjective: Afghan

Albania

noun: Albanian(s)

adjective: Albanian

Algeria

noun: Algerian(s)

adjective: Algerian

American Samoa

noun: American Samoan(s)

adjective: American Samoan

Andorra

noun: Andorran(s)

adjective: Andorran

Angola

noun: Angolan(s)

adjective: Angolan

Anguilla

noun: Anguillan(s)

adjective: Anguillan

Antigua and Barbuda

noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s)

adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Argentina

noun: Argentine(s)

adjective: Argentine

Armenia

noun: Armenian(s)

adjective: Armenian

Aruba

noun: Aruban(s)

adjective: Aruban; Dutch

Australia

noun: Australian(s)

adjective: Australian

Austria

noun: Austrian(s)

adjective: Austrian

Azerbaijan

noun: Azerbaijani(s), Azeri(s)

adjective: Azerbaijani, Azeri

Bahamas, The

noun: Bahamian(s)

adjective: Bahamian

Bahrain

noun: Bahraini(s)

adjective: Bahraini

Bangladesh

noun: Bangladeshi(s)

adjective: Bangladeshi

Barbados

noun: Barbadian(s) or Bajan

adjective: Barbadian or Bajan

Belarus

noun: Belarusian(s)

adjective: Belarusian

Belgium

noun: Belgian(s)

adjective: Belgian

Belize

noun: Belizean(s)

adjective: Belizean

Benin

noun: Beninese (singular and plural)

adjective: Beninese

Bermuda

noun: Bermudian(s)

adjective: Bermudian

Bhutan

noun: Bhutanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Bhutanese

Bolivia

noun: Bolivian(s)

adjective: Bolivian

Bosnia and Herzegovina

noun: Bosnian(s), Herzegovinian(s)

adjective: Bosnian, Herzegovinian

Botswana

noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)

Brazil

noun: Brazilian(s)

adjective: Brazilian

British Virgin Islands

noun: British Virgin Islander(s)

adjective: British Virgin Islander

Brunei

noun: Bruneian(s)

adjective: Bruneian

Bulgaria

noun: Bulgarian(s)

adjective: Bulgarian

Burkina Faso

noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)

adjective: Burkinabe

Burma

noun: Burmese (singular and plural)

adjective: Burmese

Burundi

noun: Burundian(s)

adjective: Burundian

Cambodia

noun: Cambodian(s)

adjective: Cambodian

Cameroon

noun: Cameroonian(s)

adjective: Cameroonian

Canada

noun: Canadian(s)

adjective: Canadian

Cape Verde

noun: Cape Verdean(s)

adjective: Cape Verdean

Cayman Islands

noun: Caymanian(s)

adjective: Caymanian

Central African Republic

noun: Central African(s)

adjective: Central African

Chad

noun: Chadian(s)

adjective: Chadian

Chile

noun: Chilean(s)

adjective: Chilean

China

noun: Chinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Chinese

Christmas Island

noun: Christmas Islander(s)

adjective: Christmas Island

Cocos (Keeling) Islands

noun: Cocos Islander(s)

adjective: Cocos Islander

Colombia

noun: Colombian(s)

adjective: Colombian

Comoros

noun: Comoran(s)

adjective: Comoran

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

noun: Congolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Congolese or Congo

Congo, Republic of the

noun: Congolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Congolese or Congo

Cook Islands

noun: Cook Islander(s)

adjective: Cook Islander

Costa Rica

noun: Costa Rican(s)

adjective: Costa Rican

Cote d'Ivoire

noun: Ivoirian(s)

adjective: Ivoirian

Croatia

noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)

adjective: Croatian

Cuba

noun: Cuban(s)

adjective: Cuban

Cyprus

noun: Cypriot(s)

adjective: Cypriot

Czech Republic

noun: Czech(s)

adjective: Czech

Denmark

noun: Dane(s)

adjective: Danish

Djibouti

noun: Djiboutian(s)

adjective: Djiboutian

Dominica

noun: Dominican(s)

adjective: Dominican

Dominican Republic

noun: Dominican(s)

adjective: Dominican

East Timor

noun: Timorese

adjective: Timorese

Ecuador

noun: Ecuadorian(s)

adjective: Ecuadorian

Egypt

noun: Egyptian(s)

adjective: Egyptian

El Salvador

noun: Salvadoran(s)

adjective: Salvadoran

Equatorial Guinea

noun: Equatorial Guinean(s) or Equatoguinean(s)

adjective: Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean

Eritrea

noun: Eritrean(s)

adjective: Eritrean

Estonia

noun: Estonian(s)

adjective: Estonian

Ethiopia

noun: Ethiopian(s)

adjective: Ethiopian

Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)

noun: Falkland Islander(s)

adjective: Falkland Island

Faroe Islands

noun: Faroese (singular and plural)

adjective: Faroese

Fiji

noun: Fijian(s)

adjective: Fijian

Finland

noun: Finn(s)

adjective: Finnish

France

noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective: French

French Guiana

noun: French Guianese (singular and plural)

adjective: French Guianese

French Polynesia

noun: French Polynesian(s)

adjective: French Polynesian

Gabon

noun: Gabonese (singular and plural)

adjective: Gabonese

Gambia, The

noun: Gambian(s)

adjective: Gambian

Gaza Strip

noun: NA

adjective: NA

Georgia

noun: Georgian(s)

adjective: Georgian

Germany

noun: German(s)

adjective: German

Ghana

noun: Ghanaian(s)

adjective: Ghanaian

Gibraltar

noun: Gibraltarian(s)

adjective: Gibraltar

Greece

noun: Greek(s)

adjective: Greek

Greenland

noun: Greenlander(s)

adjective: Greenlandic

Grenada

noun: Grenadian(s)

adjective: Grenadian

Guadeloupe

noun: Guadeloupian(s)

adjective: Guadeloupe

Guam

noun: Guamanian(s) (US citizens)

adjective: Guamanian

Guatemala

noun: Guatemalan(s)

adjective: Guatemalan

Guernsey

noun: Channel Islander(s)

adjective: Channel Islander

Guinea

noun: Guinean(s)

adjective: Guinean

Guinea-Bissau

noun: Guinean(s)

adjective: Guinean

Guyana

noun: Guyanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Guyanese

Haiti

noun: Haitian(s)

adjective: Haitian

Holy See (Vatican City)

noun: none

adjective: none

Honduras

noun: Honduran(s)

adjective: Honduran

Hong Kong

noun: Chinese/Hong Konger

adjective: Chinese/Hong Kong

Hungary

noun: Hungarian(s)

adjective: Hungarian

Iceland

noun: Icelander(s)

adjective: Icelandic

India

noun: Indian(s)

adjective: Indian

Indonesia

noun: Indonesian(s)

adjective: Indonesian

Iran

noun: Iranian(s)

adjective: Iranian

Iraq

noun: Iraqi(s)

adjective: Iraqi

Ireland

noun: Irishman(men), Irishwoman(women), Irish (collective plural)

adjective: Irish

Isle of Man

noun: Manxman (men), Manxwoman (women)

adjective: Manx

Israel

noun: Israeli(s)

adjective: Israeli

Italy

noun: Italian(s)

adjective: Italian

Jamaica

noun: Jamaican(s)

adjective: Jamaican

Japan

noun: Japanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Japanese

Jersey

noun: Channel Islander(s)

adjective: Channel Islander

Jordan

noun: Jordanian(s)

adjective: Jordanian

Kazakhstan

noun: Kazakhstani(s)

adjective: Kazakhstani

Kenya

noun: Kenyan(s)

adjective: Kenyan

Kiribati

noun: I-Kiribati (singular and plural)

adjective: I-Kiribati

Korea, North

noun: Korean(s)

adjective: Korean

Korea, South

noun: Korean(s)

adjective: Korean

Kuwait

noun: Kuwaiti(s)

adjective: Kuwaiti

Kyrgyzstan

noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)

adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Laos

noun: Lao(s) or Laotian(s)

adjective: Lao or Laotian

Latvia

noun: Latvian(s)

adjective: Latvian

Lebanon

noun: Lebanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Lebanese

Lesotho

noun: Mosotho (singular), Basotho (plural)

adjective: Basotho

Liberia

noun: Liberian(s)

adjective: Liberian

Libya

noun: Libyan(s)

adjective: Libyan

Liechtenstein

noun: Liechtensteiner(s)

adjective: Liechtenstein

Lithuania

noun: Lithuanian(s)

adjective: Lithuanian

Luxembourg

noun: Luxembourger(s)

adjective: Luxembourg

Macau

noun: Chinese

adjective: Chinese

Macedonia

noun: Macedonian(s)

adjective: Macedonian

Madagascar

noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)

adjective: Malagasy

Malawi

noun: Malawian(s)

adjective: Malawian

Malaysia

noun: Malaysian(s)

adjective: Malaysian

Maldives

noun: Maldivian(s)

adjective: Maldivian

Mali

noun: Malian(s)

adjective: Malian

Malta

noun: Maltese (singular and plural)

adjective: Maltese

Marshall Islands

noun: Marshallese (singular and plural)

adjective: Marshallese

Martinique

noun: Martiniquais (singular and plural)

adjective: Martiniquais

Mauritania

noun: Mauritanian(s)

adjective: Mauritanian

Mauritius

noun: Mauritian(s)

adjective: Mauritian

Mayotte

noun: Mahorais (singular and plural)

adjective: Mahoran

Mexico

noun: Mexican(s)

adjective: Mexican

Micronesia, Federated States of

noun: Micronesian(s)

adjective: Micronesian; Chuukese, Kosraen(s), Pohnpeian(s), Yapese

Moldova

noun: Moldovan(s)

adjective: Moldovan

Monaco

noun: Monegasque(s) or Monacan(s)

adjective: Monegasque or Monacan

Mongolia

noun: Mongolian(s)

adjective: Mongolian

Montserrat

noun: Montserratian(s)

adjective: Montserratian

Morocco

noun: Moroccan(s)

adjective: Moroccan

Mozambique

noun: Mozambican(s)

adjective: Mozambican

Namibia

noun: Namibian(s)

adjective: Namibian

Nauru

noun: Nauruan(s)

adjective: Nauruan

Nepal

noun: Nepalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Nepalese

Netherlands

noun: Dutchman(men), Dutchwoman(women)

adjective: Dutch

Netherlands Antilles

noun: Dutch Antillean(s)

adjective: Dutch Antillean

New Caledonia

noun: New Caledonian(s)

adjective: New Caledonian

New Zealand

noun: New Zealander(s)

adjective: New Zealand

Nicaragua

noun: Nicaraguan(s)

adjective: Nicaraguan

Niger

noun: Nigerien(s)

adjective: Nigerien

Nigeria

noun: Nigerian(s)

adjective: Nigerian

Niue

noun: Niuean(s)

adjective: Niuean

Norfolk Island

noun: Norfolk Islander(s)

adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)

Northern Mariana Islands

noun: NA (US citizens)

adjective: NA

Norway

noun: Norwegian(s)

adjective: Norwegian

Oman

noun: Omani(s)

adjective: Omani

Pakistan

noun: Pakistani(s)

adjective: Pakistani

Palau

noun: Palauan(s)

adjective: Palauan

Panama

noun: Panamanian(s)

adjective: Panamanian

Papua New Guinea

noun: Papua New Guinean(s)

adjective: Papua New Guinean

Paraguay

noun: Paraguayan(s)

adjective: Paraguayan

Peru

noun: Peruvian(s)

adjective: Peruvian

Philippines

noun: Filipino(s)

adjective: Philippine

Pitcairn Islands

noun: Pitcairn Islander(s)

adjective: Pitcairn Islander

Poland

noun: Pole(s)

adjective: Polish

Portugal

noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)

adjective: Portuguese

Puerto Rico

noun: Puerto Rican(s) (US citizens)

adjective: Puerto Rican

Qatar

noun: Qatari(s)

adjective: Qatari

Reunion

noun: Reunionese (singular and plural)

adjective: Reunionese

Romania

noun: Romanian(s)

adjective: Romanian

Russia

noun: Russian(s)

adjective: Russian

Rwanda

noun: Rwandan(s)

adjective: Rwandan

Saint Helena

noun: Saint Helenian(s)

adjective: Saint Helenian

note: referred to locally as "Saints"

Saint Kitts and Nevis

noun: Kittitian(s), Nevisian(s)

adjective: Kittitian, Nevisian

Saint Lucia

noun: Saint Lucian(s)

adjective: Saint Lucian

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)

adjective: French

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

noun: Saint Vincentian(s) or Vincentian(s)

adjective: Saint Vincentian or Vincentian

Samoa

noun: Samoan(s)

adjective: Samoan

San Marino

noun: Sammarinese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sammarinese

Sao Tome and Principe

noun: Sao Tomean(s)

adjective: Sao Tomean

Saudi Arabia

noun: Saudi(s)

adjective: Saudi or Saudi Arabian

Senegal

noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)

adjective: Senegalese

Seychelles

noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)

adjective: Seychellois

Sierra Leone

noun: Sierra Leonean(s)

adjective: Sierra Leonean

Singapore

noun: Singaporean(s)

adjective: Singapore

Slovakia

noun: Slovak(s)

adjective: Slovak

Slovenia

noun: Slovene(s)

adjective: Slovenian

Solomon Islands

noun: Solomon Islander(s)

adjective: Solomon Islander

Somalia

noun: Somali(s)

adjective: Somali

South Africa

noun: South African(s)

adjective: South African

Spain

noun: Spaniard(s)

adjective: Spanish

Sri Lanka

noun: Sri Lankan(s)

adjective: Sri Lankan

Sudan

noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)

adjective: Sudanese

Suriname

noun: Surinamer(s)

adjective: Surinamese

Swaziland

noun: Swazi(s)

adjective: Swazi

Sweden

noun: Swede(s)

adjective: Swedish

Switzerland

noun: Swiss (singular and plural)

adjective: Swiss

Syria

noun: Syrian(s)

adjective: Syrian

Taiwan

noun: Taiwan (singular and plural)

note: example - he or she is from Taiwan; they are from Taiwan

adjective: Taiwan

Tajikistan

noun: Tajikistani(s)

adjective: Tajikistani

Tanzania

noun: Tanzanian(s)

adjective: Tanzanian

Thailand

noun: Thai (singular and plural)

adjective: Thai

Togo

noun: Togolese (singular and plural)

adjective: Togolese

Tokelau

noun: Tokelauan(s)

adjective: Tokelauan

Tonga

noun: Tongan(s)

adjective: Tongan

Trinidad and Tobago

noun: Trinidadian(s), Tobagonian(s)

adjective: Trinidadian, Tobagonian

Tunisia

noun: Tunisian(s)

adjective: Tunisian

Turkey

noun: Turk(s)

adjective: Turkish

Turkmenistan

noun: Turkmen(s)

adjective: Turkmen

Turks and Caicos Islands

noun: none

adjective: none

Tuvalu

noun: Tuvaluan(s)

adjective: Tuvaluan

Uganda

noun: Ugandan(s)

adjective: Ugandan

Ukraine

noun: Ukrainian(s)

adjective: Ukrainian

United Arab Emirates

noun: Emirati(s)

adjective: Emirati

United Kingdom

noun: Briton(s), British (collective plural)

adjective: British

United States

noun: American(s)

adjective: American

Uruguay

noun: Uruguayan(s)

adjective: Uruguayan

Uzbekistan

noun: Uzbekistani

adjective: Uzbekistani

Vanuatu

noun: Ni-Vanuatu (singular and plural)

adjective: Ni-Vanuatu

Venezuela

noun: Venezuelan(s)

adjective: Venezuelan

Vietnam

noun: Vietnamese (singular and plural)

adjective: Vietnamese

Virgin Islands

noun: Virgin Islander(s) (US citizens)

adjective: Virgin Islander

Wallis and Futuna

noun: Wallisian(s), Futunan(s), or Wallis and Futuna Islanders

adjective: Wallisian, Futunan, or Wallis and Futuna Islander

West Bank

noun: NA

adjective: NA

Western Sahara

noun: Sahrawi(s), Sahraoui(s)

adjective: Sahrawi, Sahrawian, Sahraouian

Yemen

noun: Yemeni(s)

adjective: Yemeni

Zambia

noun: Zambian(s)

adjective: Zambian

Zimbabwe

noun: Zimbabwean(s)

adjective: Zimbabwean

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