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05 Giving a Presentation: Part B (Visuals)

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Meeting A - Formal Meeting

Hannah: Thank you, Mr. Edwards. We conducted eight focus groups, each with 10 to 12 people who currently use the product. In this pie chart, the yellow-shaded area represents those participants who buy the product from Vision Corporation, and they comprise only 13% of the people we spoke with. That’s consistent with Vision Corporation’s market share segment. We asked the participants what features they wanted when purchasing the product and this table shows their answers in descending order of importance. As you can see across this row and down this column, Vision Corporation’s current product offering includes only one of the top three most desired features. Finally, we asked the participants to rank the product offered by Vision Corporation against those of the top four competitors, and the results are shown in this bar chart. Vision Corporation received the best rankings for “affordability,” but suffered in all the other categories. This line graph shows that these figures have held steady over the four months we’ve conducted these focus groups. We believe this means that your company would be justified in raising the price of its product and using the additional revenue to improve the product’s features.

Meeting B - Informal Meeting

Hannah: Thanks, Shawn. Each of the eight focus groups we spoke with had 10 to 12 participants who are users of the product, although not necessarily the one offered by Vision Corp. In this table, you can see that the proportion of people who use your company’s product compared to the total market is fairly small, at only 13%. This, of course, means your competitors have a big leg up on the market with over 85%. We asked participants what kinds of things they look for when deciding which product to buy. Let me walk you through this chart with my laser pointer. You can see that the most important features are listed alphabetically under the header, “Important Features.” Unfortunately, your current product has only one of three most sought-after features. That may be one important reason why more customers aren’t buying your product. Finally, take a look at this bar chart, which shows how your product’s features stack up against those of your competitors. Your product has good “affordability,” but the truth is that your customers aren’t that concerned about price. You could easily raise your prices and use the extra money from sales to better match your product with what customers are looking for.

GLOSSARY

Meeting A - Formal Meeting

pie chart – a visual or picture used in reports and presentations that is a circle made of pieces of different colors where the size of each piece represents the
percentage or number of something
* This pie chart shows that almost half of our customers have a college degree.

(color)-shaded area – the section of a chart or graph that is in a different color
* The blue-shaded area in this line chart represents our company, and the green-shaded area is our biggest competitor.

to comprise – to be a group that is made up of something; to be a group that contains different things or parts
* The band used to have six members, but now it’s only comprised of one piano player, a drummer, and a singer.

consistent – compatible; being in agreement with; being what is expected; not surprising
* Tanya’s favorite music was written by Bach, which is consistent with her love of complex and memorable melodies.

segment – a piece of something; a part or section of something
* Cars on the segment of freeway between Springfield and Davistown always move very slowly.

table – a square or rectangular chart that lists information horizontally (side to side) and vertically (up and down)
* This table shows the ideal weights for men and women of different heights.

descending order – listed from biggest, best, or top to the smallest, worst, or bottom
* The sales information is listed in descending order, so the biggest sales are at the top of the list.

row – a horizontal (side to side) line in a table
* In this table, there is one row for every student in the class.

column – a vertical (top to bottom) line in a table
* Many tables have columns with information for different years.

to rank – to give a number to each thing in a list to show its importance
* We ranked the hotel from one (poor) to five (excellent) for its service, price, and cleanliness.

bar chart – a square or rectangular chart with boxes of different colors when the length or height of the boxes represents different amounts of something
* This bar cart shows how much money people earn in different countries.

affordability – low price; a price that people can pay easily
* When you buy a new home, affordability is important, but so is the safety of the area and its distance to good schools.

to suffer – to be hurt by something; to not do well because of something
* The local economy suffered when the factory closed.

category – a group of things that are similar
* Our major product categories are computers, printers, and scanners.

line graph – a square or rectangular chart with a line that goes from left to right and whose changing height shows how something changes (usually over time)
* This line graph shows how the number of deaths of babies has decreased during the last 50 years.

to hold steady – to be constant; to not change; to remain the same
* During most of the year our sales hold steady, but they increase before Christmas when many people buy gifts for their family and friends.

justified – reasonable; able to be explained
* Mariana felt justified in buying the expensive dress because she had worked very hard all month to save her money for it.

revenue – income; money that a person or organization receives from selling something
* Our sales revenue is higher when we have more salespeople working for our company.

Meeting B - Informal Meeting

proportion – a part of something larger; a section or segment of a whole
* A large proportion of college students get some money from their parents each month.

a leg up – an advantage; something that helps someone
* Joshua has a leg up in getting a job because his parents know almost everyone in this town.

to walk (one) through (something) – to explain something to someone in detail; to help someone understand something step by step
* Carolina walked us through the process of buying a home, and now we understand it much better.

chart – a square or rectangular visual or picture with information used for reports and presentations
* This chart shows how we spent our money last month.

laser pointer – a small machine held in one’s hands that, when pushed, has a red light that can be used by the speaker to point at objects on a screen
* Since the chart can be confusing, I would suggest using a laser pointer during your presentation to explain the different parts.

alphabetically – in order from A to Z; in the order of the alphabet
* Phone books list people’s last names alphabetically.

header – a word or phrase (usually the name of the category) at the top of a column in a table
* This table’s headers include “price,” “style,” and “model number.”

sought-after – desired; wanted; looked for
* That computer game is one of the most sought-after Christmas gifts for young boys.

to stack up against – to compare with something
* Before buying a new car, it’s important to know how it stacks up against similar cars made by other companies.

COMPLETE TRANSCRIPT

Welcome to ESLPod.com's “Business Meetings" course: lesson five. I'm your
host, Dr. Jeff McQuillan, coming to you from the Center for Educational
Development in beautiful Los Angeles, California.

In the fourth lesson of “Business Meetings,” we learned some vocabulary for
giving a presentation at formal and informal business meetings. In this fifth
lesson, we're going to continue talking about how to give presentations, but this
time we'll focus on using visuals, the images and pictures that help people
understand what's being presented.

First, let's listen to Hannah’s presentation at the formal meeting.

[start of formal meeting script]

Hannah: Thank you, Mr. Edwards. We conducted eight focus groups, each with 10 to 12 people who currently use the product. In this pie chart, the yellow-shaded area represents those participants who buy the product from Vision Corporation, and they comprise only 13% of the people we spoke with. That’s consistent with Vision Corporation’s market share segment. We asked the participants what features they wanted when purchasing the product and this table shows their answers in descending order of importance. As you can see across this row and down this column, Vision Corporation’s current product offering includes only one of the top three most desired features. Finally, we asked the participants to rank the product offered by Vision Corporation against those of the top four competitors, and the results are shown in this bar chart. Vision Corporation received the best rankings for “affordability,” but suffered in all the other categories. This line graph shows that these figures have held steady over the four months we’ve conducted these focus groups. We believe this means that your company would be justified in raising the price of its product and using the additional revenue to improve the product’s features.

[end of formal meeting script]

Hannah begins her presentation by saying that she conducted eight focus groups, each with 10 to 12 people who currently use the product. That means that she asked a total of 80 to 96 people for their opinions about the product. Remember a focus group is a way that companies get information from their customers by bringing in 8 or 10, or 12 people into a single room, and asking them questions – interviewing them together.

Hannah says that in the pie chart she’s showing them, the yellow-shaded area represents the participants who buy the product from Vision Corporation. So, Hannah is showing them a pie chart. A “pie (pie) chart” is a visual or picture used in reports and presentations and it is a circle made of different colors where the size of each piece of the pie represents the percentage or number of something. A “pie” is normally a round thing that you eat; it’s a sweet dessert. Here, a “pie chart” means a round circle that is divided up into pieces that represent percentages or numbers. When Hannah says the “yellow-shaded area,” she means the section, or part, of the circle with a yellow color.

Hannah says that the participants represented in the yellow-shaded area comprise only 13% of the people she spoke with. To “comprise” (comprise) means to be a group that is made up of something or that contains different parts or things. You might say, for example, the United Nations is comprised of representatives from every country in the world; that would be a use of the verb “comprise.” In other words, Hannah is pointing to a pie chart that represents all the people she spoke with who use the product. One section of that pie chart represents 13% of the people; that part – that section is shaded, or colored, in yellow, representing the people who use the product that Vision Corporation sells.

Hannah says that this is “consistent with Vision Corporation’s market share segment.” To be “consistent” (consistent) is to be compatible with, or to be in agreement with something that is expected. Hannah is simply saying that the data (or information) that she found isn’t surprising; it’s consistent with their
market share segment. It makes sense; it matches what they thought would be true. We could say, for example, that many people in Japan eat a lot of rice, and that’s consistent with what people in Asia generally eat – or many people. So we know that many countries in Asia eat a lot of rice; Japan is a country in Asia, and Japan eats a lot of rice, so that’s consistent with this other knowledge that we have. A “segment” (segment) is a piece or part or section of something, so a “market share segment” is the amount of the market share that the company has, or what percentage of product users buy Vision Corporation’s product. When Hannah says that the data is consistent with Vision Corporation’s market share segment, she means that they already knew their market share was approximately 13%, and learning that 13% of the focus group participants buy Vision Corporation’s product confirmed or supported what they already knew.

Hannah says that she “asked the participants what features they wanted when purchasing the product and this table shows their answers.” In this context, a “table” (table) is a square or rectangular chart that lists information horizontally (meaning side to side) and vertically (meaning up and down). Bus and train schedules are often shown in tables. Hannah says that in this table the answers are shown in “descending order” “Descending (descending) order (order)” means that the most important features or characteristics are listed at the top (they’re at the top of the table), and the least important features are listed, or put, at the bottom. For example, the numbers 62, 41, 32, 19 are listed in descending order, because the biggest number, 62, is first and the smallest number, 19, is last. If they were listed or put on the table the other way, 19, 32, 41, 62, with 19 at the top and 62 at the bottom, they would be in “ascending order,” “ascending (ascending) order (order).”

Then Hannah says, “As you can see across this row and down this column, Vision Corporation’s current product offering includes only one of the top three most desired features.” A couple of terms here that are important in explaining visuals, especially for a table. A table has rows and columns. A “row” (row) is one horizontal (or side-to-side) line in a table; it goes across from left to right. A “column” (column) is a line that goes from top to bottom, a vertical line. So, a table has sections that go across (horizontally) and up and down (vertically), and this, of course, makes a square or a rectangle. You can think of these as little boxes, and there are boxes that go horizontally (in a row) and go vertically (in a column). When you look at a television schedule, for example, usually the row are the different television channels, and the columns lists the shows at different times during the day.

Hannah says that they asked the participants to rank the products offered by Vision Corporation. “To rank” means to give a number to each thing in a list to show or indicate its importance. In some restaurants for example, the waiter may give you a piece of paper and ask you to rank the food and services from one (meaning very poor) to five (meaning excellent). This is something you would find at a not very expensive restaurant. For example, in the United States, they sometimes ask for your opinion; they ask you to rank – to put things in order from most important to least important.

The focus group participants were asked to rank Vision Corporation’s product against those of the top four competitors, meaning they were asked to rank five different products, one from each of the five companies, and say which one was best, which one was second best, third best, fourth best, and then worst, or fifth. Hannah then says that the results of this ranking are shown in the bar chart. A “bar (bar) chart (chart)” is a square or rectangular chart with bars (or big boxes) of different colors where the length or the height of the box represents different amounts of something. We often see bar charts in magazines or newspapers when, for example, they show how well the economy is doing in different countries. A high line that goes vertically usually (from top to bottom) indicates a lot of something, and a small line indicates not very much of something; that would be a bar chart – we call each one of those lines a “bar.” In Hannah’s bar chart, there’s probably one bar for each of the five products, and a longer or a taller bar represents a higher ranking; that would be the product that the focus group liked the most.

Hannah says that “Vision Corporation received the best rankings for affordability. “Affordability” (affordability) means having a price that people can pay easily. To be able to “afford” something means you have enough money – it isn’t expensive. In other words, Vision Corporation’s product is less expensive than the other companies’ products. But Hannah says that the company suffered in all the other categories. To “suffer” (suffer) means to be hurt by something, or to not do well because of something. You might suffer from a headache, for example. A “category” (category) is a group of things that are similar. Some categories of vehicles (automobiles) would include sports cars, pickup trucks, station wagons; these are different types or different categories of cars. So when Hannah says that Vision Corporation’s product suffered in all the other categories, she means that although the company had high rankings for affordability, or price, it had much lower rankings on all the other categories, or things that participants were asked to rank. So, they didn’t like Vision Corporation’s product on almost all of the categories, but did like it for affordability, or price.

Hannah says that her “line graph shows that these figures have held steady” over four months. A “line (line) graph (graph)” is also a square or rectangular chart, but one that has a line that goes from left to right. The line goes up or goes down; it changes height to show how something changes. Usually, a line graph is used to indicate changes over time, over several days or several months or several years. You could use a line chart to show how gasoline prices are increasing or decreasing over time in the last 10 years. So if you look at the chart, you see a line, if the line goes up, it’s gotten higher, if it goes down, it’s
gotten lower.

To “hold steady” (steady) means to be constant – to not change. If prices increase but the amount of money that people earn (people get from their jobs) holds steady, then people aren’t going to buy as much. To “hold steady” means not to change. If gas prices hold steady, they aren’t going up and they aren’t going down – they’re staying the same.

Since Hannah says that the line graph shows that the figures, or rankings, have held steady over the past four months, this means that the line on the line graph is pretty straight, or flat – it doesn’t go up or it doesn’t go down very much over this four-month period.

Hannah says that she believes this means that the company would be justified in raising the price of its product. To be “justified” (justified) means to be reasonable or to be able to be explained. You might feel justified in going to the movies this weekend because you worked hard all week. When Hannah says that the company would be justified in raising the price of the product, she means that the company should increase, or raise the price and that there’s no reason not raise the price. It would be “justifiable,” or able to be “justified” – you can come up with a good reason why you should do something.

Finally, Hannah says that the company should use the additional revenue to improve the product’s features. “Revenue” (revenue) is income. It’s the money that a person or an organization receives (or gets) from selling something. If you are selling cars and you sell 10 cars, and each car costs $10,000, you will have $100,000 in revenue. Vision Corporation will receive more revenue, or income, if it increases the price of its product and if the same number of people buy the product. Of course, sometimes if you increase the price, fewer people will buy your product, so you may or may not get more revenue.

Now that we’re more familiar with the vocabulary, let’s listen to Hannah’s presentation at the formal meeting again, this time at a native rate of speech.


[start of formal meeting script]

Hannah: Thank you, Mr. Edwards. We conducted eight focus groups, each with 10 to 12 people who currently use the product. In this pie chart, the yellow-shaded area represents those participants who buy the product from Vision Corporation, and they comprise only 13% of the people we spoke with. That’s consistent with Vision Corporation’s market share segment. We asked the participants what features they wanted when purchasing the product and this table shows their answers in descending order of importance. As you can see across this row and down this column, Vision Corporation’s current product offering includes only one of the top three most desired features. Finally, we asked the participants to rank the product offered by Vision Corporation against those of the top four competitors, and the results are shown in this bar chart. Vision Corporation received the best rankings for “affordability,” but suffered in all the other categories. This line graph shows that these figures have held steady over the four months we’ve conducted these focus groups. We believe this means that your company would be justified in raising the price of its product and using the additional revenue to improve the product’s features.

[end of formal meeting script]

In this next section, we’re going to listen to the same presentation, but this time it will be at an informal meeting. Hannah uses less formal words and is much more relaxed.

[start of informal meeting script]

Hannah: Thanks, Shawn. Each of the eight focus groups we spoke with had 10 to 12 participants who are users of the product, although not necessarily the one offered by Vision Corp. In this table, you can see that the proportion of people who use your company’s product compared to the total market is fairly small, at only 13%. This, of course, means your competitors have a big leg up on the market with over 85%. We asked participants what kinds of things they look for when deciding which product to buy. Let me walk you through this chart with my laser pointer. You can see that the most important features are listed alphabetically under the header, “Important Features.” Unfortunately, your current product has only one of three most sought-after features. That may be one important reason why more customers aren’t buying your product. Finally, take a look at this bar chart, which shows how your product’s features stack up against those of your competitors. Your product has good “affordability,” but the truth is that your customers aren’t that concerned about price. You could easily raise your prices and use the extra money from sales to better match your product with what customers are looking for.

[end of informal meeting script]

Hannah starts by saying, “Each of the eight focus groups we spoke with had 10 to 12 participants who are users of the product, although not necessarily the one offered by Vision Corp. In this table, you can see that the proportion of people who use your company’s product compared to the total market is fairly small, at only 13%.” So Hannah is saying that when they talked to these people in their focus groups, all of them used a product, but not all of them used Vision Corporation’s product.

She points to a table and says that the proportion of people who use Vision corporation’s product, compared to all the people who use all of the products, is fairly, or very, small at 13. A “proportion” (proportion) is part of something, or a section. We could say a “segment” of something. For example, I might ask you, “What proportion of the students in your English class are women?” meaning what percentage, what part of the class – how many. When Hannah says that the proportion, or smaller group of people who use Vision Corporation’s product compared to the total market is fairly small, at only 13%, she means that only 13% of all the people who use the product buy it from Vision Corporation, and 13% is a small part of the entire market.

Hannah says that this means that the competitors have a big leg up on the market with over 85%. A “leg (leg) up” is an advantage, or something that helps someone. You may have a leg up in getting a job because you know someone in the company – you have a good connection to the company. In this case, because Vision Corporation has only 13% of the market share, its competitors must have 87%, which is a big advantage or “leg up” for these companies.

Hannah asked the participants what kinds of things they look for when deciding which product to buy. She says, “Let me walk you through this chart.” To “walk someone through” something means to explain something to someone in detail, giving them all of the information, or to help someone understand something step by step. You’re going to take each part and explain it very carefully. Right now I’m walking you through the vocabulary in an informal business meeting; I’m explaining each word. A “chart” (chart) is a square or rectangular visual or picture with information that we use for reports and presentations. We’ve already talked about pie charts, bar charts, and line graphs; these are all types of charts.

So when Hannah says that she’s going to walk them through the chart, she means she’s going to explain her visual (or picture) in detail so that they can understand it better. She says she’s going to use her laser pointer. A “laser (laser) pointer (pointer)” is a small machine (it looks like a pen) that you hold in your hands, and when you push a button, there’s a red light (like a flashlight) that can be used by someone giving a presentation to point at certain objects on the screen. So it’s like a red flashlight, usually the size of a pen, that you can use to point something out on a screen with the red light. So Hannah is going to use this laser pointer to point to, or indicate, different parts of the chart to help people know what they’re looking at.

She says that the most important features are listed alphabetically under the header. If something is listed “alphabetically” (alphabetically), we mean it is listed (or put) in order from A to Z; it would be from A to Z in descending order, or in the order of the alphabet in the English alphabet: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and so forth. Phone books, for example, usually list, or put, people’s names alphabetically by their last name.

A “header” (header) is a word or phrase (usually the name of a category or group) at the top of a column in a table. So the first line in this table has a header called “Important Features,” and under that header (in the same column – in the boxes below) you will see the most important features, or characteristics, listed alphabetically, from A to Z.

Hannah says that, unfortunately, the Vision Corporation product has only one of the three most sought-after features. If something is “sought (sought) -after,” it is desired, or wanted; it’s something people are looking for. “Sought” is the past participle of the verb “to seek” (seek), which means to look for, to try to find. The people in the focus groups told Hannah that the three things they most wanted in a product, and Vision Corporation’s product has only one of those things. Hannah says that this may be one important reason why customers aren’t buying Vision Corporation’s products.

Hannah then asks people to look at the bar chart, which shows how the product’s features, or characteristics, stack up against those of the competitors. The expression to “stack (stack) up against” something means to compare with something. You might want to know how your salary (the money that the company gives you) stacks up against the money that your colleagues (or co-workers) get. You want to know how it compares to their salary.

Hannah’s bar chart compares Vision Corporation’s product with the products offered by the competitors. She shows how they “stack up” against the competitors – how they compare to them. Hannah says that Vision Corporation’s product has good affordability, or price, but that this isn’t very important to customers. That’s why Hannah recommends, or suggests, that the company raise, or increase, its price and use the extra revenue, or money, to create a product that has more of the features that customers are looking for – the sought-after features.

Let’s listen to Hannah’s presentation again, this time when she’s speaking more quickly.

[start of informal meeting script]

Hannah: Thanks, Shawn. Each of the eight focus groups we spoke with had 10 to 12 participants who are users of the product, although not necessarily the one offered by Vision Corp. In this table, you can see that the proportion of people who use your company’s product compared to the total market is fairly small, at only 13%. This, of course, means your competitors have a big leg up on the market with over 85%. We asked participants what kinds of things they look for when deciding which product to buy. Let me walk you through this chart with my laser pointer. You can see that the most important features are listed alphabetically under the header, “Important Features.” Unfortunately, your current product has only one of three most sought-after features. That may be one important reason why more customers aren’t buying your product. Finally, take a look at this bar chart, which shows how your product’s features stack up against those of your competitors. Your product has good “affordability,” but the truth is that your customers aren’t that concerned about price. You could easily raise your prices and use the extra money from sales to better match your product with what customers are looking for.

[end of informal meeting script]

Now that we’ve listened to both the formal and informal meetings, I hope you have a better understanding of the business vocabulary used to present visuals in a presentation. In our next lesson, we’re going to learn how to end a presentation.

This course has been a production of the Center for Educational Development, in beautiful Los Angeles, California. Visit our web site at eslpod.com.

This course was produced by Dr. Jeff McQuillan and Dr. Lucy Tse. Copyright 2007.