Daily English
Cultural English
Practical English

0779 Giving CPR

访问量:
Complete Transcript
Welcome to English as a Second Language Podcast number 779: Giving CPR.

This is English as a Second Language Podcast episode 779. I’m your host, Dr. Jeff McQuillan, coming to you from the Center for Educational Development in beautiful Los Angeles, California.

Our website is eslpod.com. Go there, become a member of ESL Podcast. Everyone’s doing it! Don’t be the last person in your country to become an ESL Podcast member.

This episode is a dialogue between Steve and Joyce about giving CPR, cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Let’s get started.

[start of dialogue]

Joyce: Lie down on the floor.

Steve: Why?

Joyce: I have to practice for my CPR exam tomorrow. I’m taking it so I can get my CPR certification. Lie down please.

Steve: Okay, okay. Now what do I do?

Joyce: You just lie there and pretend to be unresponsive, like you’re in cardiac arrest. Okay, I need to determine your heart rate and if you’re breathing or not. Then, I check to see that your airway isn’t blocked.

Steve: Hey, get your fingers out of my mouth!

Joyce: Lie still! You’re lucky I don’t have to administer artificial respiration.

Steve: Thank God for small favors!

Joyce: But I do need to practice restoring your circulation by doing chest compressions.

Steve: Ouch, that hurts!

Joyce: You’re supposed to be unresponsive, remember? Hold still while I get the defibrillator.

Steve: Oh, no, you don’t! From now on, as far as you’re concerned, I’m a case of do not resuscitate!

[end of dialogue]

Joyce begins by saying to Steve, “Lie down on the floor.” “Lie (lie) down” is a command for someone who is sitting or standing to put their body all the way down just like you were going to sleep. Steve says, “Why?” Joyce says, “I have to practice for my CPR exam tomorrow.” “CPR” stands for “cardio (meaning heart) pulmonary (meaning lungs, what you breathe with in your body) resuscitation,” when something is stopping you need to get it started again. So, “cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” “CPR,” is what you give someone who has stopped breathing. You push their chest, you try to get their heart to start again, get them breathing again. Joyce says, “I’m taking it (I’m taking this exam) so I can get my CPR certification.” A “certification” is an official document showing that you are able to do something. People get certifications as teachers that show that they are able to teach something. A CPR certification is required by many different jobs. If you want to be a nurse you have to know CPR, but if you want to work with children you often need to learn CPR, if you’re working with a lot of children for example.

Joyce says to Steve again, “Lie down please.” Steve says, “Okay, okay.” He lies down. “Now what do I do?” Joyce says, “You just lie there (you just stay there) and pretend (act like) to be unresponsive.” “To be responsive” means to react; “to be unresponsive” is the opposite, not to react. In this case, it means to be unconscious, like you’re sleeping. Joyce says act like, or “pretend to be like you’re in cardiac arrest.” “Cardiac” (cardiac) is like “cardio,” related to the heart. “Arrest” (arrest) here means stopped. A “cardiac arrest” is when your heart stops; your heart stops moving. It stops, we would use the verb, “beating” (beating). “Arrest,” however, has a number of different meanings in English, and some of those are in our Learning Guide for this episode.

Joyce says, “Okay, I need to determine your heart rate and if you’re breathing or not.” Well, I don’t know if your heart has stopped whether you have a heart rate, but okay, Joyce is the one who is the expert here. She says, “I need to determine your heart rate.” Your “heart rate” is the number of times your heart pumps or beats every minute. Each time your heart pumps or beats it pumps or sends blood out into your body, and that helps determine, among other things, how healthy you are, or can be one of the things that determines how healthy you are. Joyce says that she needs to determine Steve’s heart rate and if he is breathing or not. “To breathe” means to move air in and out of your body, specifically in and out of your “lungs,” the two parts of your body – you have two lungs – that take in air and push it out again as you breathe. Joyce says, “Then, I check to see that your airway isn’t blocked.” Your “airway” (airway – one word) is a long tube that air moves through between your nose and your lungs; that’s your airway. Joyce wants to make sure Steve’s airway isn’t blocked. “To be blocked” means that there is something preventing anything from going in or coming out; it’s what we might call an “obstacle,” to block.

Steve says, “Hey, get your fingers out of my mouth!” Joyce is checking his airway, and so she’s putting her fingers into Steve’s mouth. Steve says, “get your fingers out of my mouth!” Joyce says, “Lie still!” meaning don’t move. “To lie still” or “to be still” means not to move. “Still” has other meanings in English; of course, some of those are in our Learning Guide. Joyce says, “You’re lucky I don’t have to administer artificial respiration.” “Artificial respiration” is when you help someone breathe by usually putting your mouth on their mouth and blowing air into their lungs so they will start breathing again. That’s artificial respiration. Sometimes it’s called “mouth to mouth respiration.”

Steve says, “Thank God for small favors!” This is a somewhat humorous, funny expression meaning that you are relieved, you are happy that something good happens in a bad situation. “Thank God for small favors!”

Joyce says, “But I do need to practice restoring your circulation by doing chest compressions.” “To restore” (restore) is to return something to its original condition or its original state, to bring something back that has been changed so that it is like what it was before. “To restore your circulation” means to get your blood moving again. “Circulation” here refers to the blood moving in and out of your heart through your body. Joyce needs to restore Steve’s circulation by doing chest compressions. Your “chest” is the area in the front top of your body; your heart is underneath your chest – well, we’d say it’s in your chest. Your breasts (breasts) are on your chest. But your chest has underneath it or in it your heart. “Compression” here means pushing something down. So, “chest compressions” is part of CPR, when you are pushing down on someone’s chest, trying to get their heart to beat or to pump or to start again.

Steve says, “Ouch, that hurts!” “Ouch” is an expression we use – a word we use to mean that something is painful. Joyce says, “You’re supposed to be unresponsive, remember?” meaning you aren’t supposed to be moving. She’s telling Steve to stop moving, to stop reacting. “Hold still (again be still, lie still, don’t move) while I get the defibrillator.” A “defibrillator” (defibrillator) is a machine that uses small amounts of electricity to get your heart moving again, to get your heart pumping again when someone has had a heart attack.

Steve says, “Oh, no, you don’t (meaning no, I’m not going to let you do that)! From now on, as far as you’re concerned, I’m a case of do not resuscitate!” “As far as you are concerned” is a phrase we use to show that you do not want someone doing anything more or interfering any more in a certain area. When you say, “as far as I’m concerned,” you can use that expression to mean in terms of how much it’s important to me, when you’re talking about whether you care about something. “As far as I’m concerned, you can go to the party.” Don’t worry about me; it’s not important to me. Steve says, “as far as you’re concerned (Joyce), I’m a case of do not resuscitate!” “Do not resuscitate” is when you’re in a hospital, usually, and you’re very sick or you’re very old, and you are telling the doctors and the nurses that if your heart stops beating that they should not try to start it again; they are not to resuscitate you, to try get you breathing again, to get your heart beating again, and so forth. But Steve is using it as a joke; he’s saying that he doesn’t want Joyce to be using him anymore to practice her CPR, that he is stopping with his cooperation. He’s no longer going to help her.

Now let’s listen to the dialogue, this time at a normal speed.

[start of dialogue]

Joyce: Lie down on the floor.

Steve: Why?

Joyce: I have to practice for my CPR exam tomorrow. I’m taking it so I can get my CPR certification. Lie down please.

Steve: Okay, okay. Now what do I do?

Joyce: You just lie there and pretend to be unresponsive, like you’re in cardiac arrest. Okay, I need to determine your heart rate and if you’re breathing or not. Then, I check to see that your airway isn’t blocked.

Steve: Hey, get your fingers out of my mouth!

Joyce: Lie still! You’re lucky I don’t have to administer artificial respiration.

Steve: Thank God for small favors!

Joyce: But I do need to practice restoring your circulation by doing chest compressions.

Steve: Ouch, that hurts!

Joyce: You’re supposed to be unresponsive, remember? Hold still while I get the defibrillator.

Steve: Oh, no, you don’t! From now on, as far as you’re concerned, I’m a case of do not resuscitate!

[end of dialogue]

She doesn’t write her scripts by lying still. She gets up, types on her computer, and gives us the wonderful dialogues we have here. I’m talking, of course, about the wonderful Dr. Lucy Tse.

From Los Angeles, California, I’m Jeff McQuillan. Thank you for listening. Come back and listen to us again here on ESL Podcast.

English as a Second Language Podcast is written and produced by Dr. Lucy Tse, hosted by Dr. Jeff McQuillan, copyright 2012 by the Center for Educational Development.

Glossary
lie down – a command for someone who is sitting or standing to take a horizontal position on the floor or other surface as if sleeping, usually resting on one’s back

* The doctor asked the patient to lie down and take a deep breath.

CPR – cardiopulmonary resuscitation; a way to help a person who is not breathing by pushing air into his or her mouth and pushing on the chest to make the heart move blood through the body

* Never perform CPR unless you’re absolutely sure that the person isn’t breathing.

certification – an official document showing that someone has completed a certain amount of education or hands-on experience to be able to do something well

* Ingrid earned a certification in technical writing as a way to demonstrate her skills to potential employers.

unresponsive – not reacting; unconscious

* Francine was unresponsive for about 30 seconds after the accident, but then she regained consciousness and began talking.

cardiac arrest – a heart attack; what happens when one’s heart stops beating and cannot move blood through the body

* James thought he was experiencing cardiac arrest, but he was just having stomach pains from all of the food he ate.

heart rate – the number of times a heart pumps (pushes blood through the body) each minute, measured in beats per minute (bpm)

* Hal’s resting heart rate is 64 beats per minute, but of course it’s higher when he exercises.

to breathe – to move air in and out of one’s lungs through one’s nose or mouth

* Arturo has a cold and a lot of nose congestion that is making it difficult for him to breathe.

airway – the tube-like structures that air moves through between one’s nose and lungs

* Popcorn is dangerous for babies, because a little piece can cover their airway and make it so they can’t breathe.

to block – to present an obstacle so that something cannot move freely, especially through a tube or hole

* They used a piece of rubber to block the leak in the side of the boat.

still – motionless; without moving

* Have you ever seen a three-year-old who could hold still for more than two minutes?

artificial respiration – the act of helping someone breathe, either by using a machine or by blowing air from one’s own mouth into a person’s mouth and/or nose

* Grandma is hooked up to artificial respiration in the hospital, but she is aware of what’s happening around her.

thank God for small favors – a phrase used to show relief, appreciation, or gratitude for something good that happens in a bad situation, often used humorously

* A: Khaled accidentally left the stove turned on, but fortunately his roommate smelled the burning food and was able to put out the fire.

* B: Thank God for small favors!

to restore – to bring something back to its original state or condition

* How many years did it take Joanna and her husband to restore this old house to its original condition?

circulation – the movement of blood throughout one’s body

* People who have poor circulation may have cold fingers and toes.

chest compression – the act of pushing down on a person’s chest (the area on the front of one’s body, between the belly button and the neck) to make the heart move blood through the body

* How many chest compressions are we supposed to give each minute?

defibrillator – a machine that applies a small amount of electricity to a person’s chest to try to make the heart start beating again

* A lot of office buildings have a defibrillator, but they aren’t useful unless people have been trained in how to use them.

as far as (one) is concerned – a phrase used to show the limits of one’s interest or influence in a particular area

* As far as I’m concerned, whatever he does behind closed doors is his own business and I don’t want to know anything about it.

do not resuscitate – a person’s decision to not be helped to breathe by medical professionals because he or she prefers to die, often abbreviated as DNR

* Wynona has suffered from cancer for years, so she decided to add a “do not resuscitate” order to her medical records.

Comprehension Questions
1. Why does Joyce want Steve to lie down?
a) Because she wants him to start to tell the truth.
b) Because she wants him to go to sleep.
c) Because she wants to practice CPR on him.

2. Why is Joyce doing chest compressions?
a) Because she wants to have stronger chest muscles.
b) Because she wants to make the patient’s heart beat again.
c) Because she wants to practice giving good massages.

Answers at bottom.

What Else Does It Mean?
arrest

The phrase “cardiac arrest,” in this podcast, means a heart attack, when one’s heart stops beating and cannot move blood through the body: “Orlando went into cardiac arrest, but fortunately, the ambulance was able to take him to the hospital very quickly and the doctors saved him.” The verb “to arrest” normally means to put someone in jail: “Shelby was arrested for stealing a car.” The phrase “house arrest” describes a punishment where someone would normally be kept in jail, but the government has agreed to allow the person to stay inside his or her home instead: “Adolfo was under house arrest for three years, but it was better than being in prison.” Finally, if something is “arresting” it is very interesting and unusual: “The architect presented an arresting design.”

still

In this podcast, the word “still” means motionless or without moving: “A wildlife photographer has to learn to hold perfectly still, because any movement might scare the animals away.” The word “still” can also mean calm or quiet: “The office was so still at night that Jake was able to get a lot of work done without any interruptions.” The word “still” also means up to a point in time and continuing: “Are you still reading that book? Didn’t you start it last year?” Or, “Are you still scared of the dark?” The word “still” can also mean despite and can be used for contrast: “It wasn’t very sunny, but we still got sunburned.” Sometimes the word “still” is used for emphasis, almost like the word “even”: “The situation became still more serious when the police officers arrived.”

Culture Note
CPR Certification

In the United States, many jobs require CPR certification. The certification needs to be renewed “periodically” (every few months or years), usually by taking “refresher courses” (a course that reminds people of what they learned before) and/or watching videos and taking an exam.

Medical professionals like doctors, nurses, and EMTs (emergency medical technicians; people who take care of patients as they travel in an ambulance) need to have CPR certification. So do people who work in “nursing homes” (facilities where very old people live and receive medical care) and “home health aides” (people who provide medical care in the patient’s home). “Lifeguards” (people who supervise swimmers) and “personal trainers” (people who help others exercise properly) also need to have CPR certification.

People who work with children need to have CPR certification, too. This group includes “daycare providers” (people who take care of children while their parents are at work), teachers, “camp counselors” (people who work with small groups of children in an outdoor environment, especially during the summer), and “coaches” (people who help children play sports). “Babysitters” (people, usually teenagers, who take care of children in their home while the parents are not there) are not required to have CPR certification, but many parents will only hire babysitters who know how to perform CPR.

In addition, many “new parents” (people who have very young children) want to get CPR certification so that they can be prepared for any “emergencies” (dangerous, unexpected situations that require an immediate reaction).

Comprehension Answers
1 - c

2 - b